In 2001, the Kenyan Government announced that important Mau Mau sites were to be turned into national monuments.  David Anderson, however, considers Maloba's and similar work to be the product of "swallowing too readily the propaganda of the Mau Mau war", noting the similarity between such analysis and the "simplistic" earlier studies of Mau Mau. As the campaign developed, Avro Lincoln heavy bombers were deployed, flying missions in Kenya from 18 November 1953 to 28 July 1955, dropping nearly 6 million bombs. , The colonial government and white farmers also wanted cheap labour which, for a period, the government acquired from native Kenyans through force. The principle of punitive sanctions against workers was not removed from the Kenyan labour statutes until the 1950s. Officially 1,819 Native Kenyans were killed by the Mau Mau. , This article is about the conflict in Kenya.  The British government accepts that the colonial administration tortured detainees, but denies liability.  Huw Bennett of King's College London, who had worked with Anderson on the Chuka Massacre, said in a witness statement to the court that the new documents "considerably strengthen" the knowledge that the British Army were "intimately involved" with the colonial security forces, whom they knew were "systematically abusing and torturing detainees in screening centres and detention camps". Detainees regarded such preachers with nothing but contempt. In short, rewards or collective punishments such as curfews could be served much more readily after villagisation, and this quickly broke Mau Mau's passive wing.  Morara said that, if the first test cases succeeded, perhaps 30,000 others would file similar complaints of torture. This was widespread and, owing to the scattered nature of the homesteads, fear of detection was negligible; so, in the first instance, the inhabitants of those areas were made to build and live in concentrated villages.  status. , The Pipeline operated a white-grey-black classification system: 'whites' were cooperative detainees, and were repatriated back to the reserves; 'greys' had been oathed but were reasonably compliant, and were moved down the Pipeline to works camps in their local districts before release; and 'blacks' were the so-called 'hard core' of Mau Mau. These were among the final battles in the long march of decolonization. compare and contrast India's national movement with the in which Kenya became independent. , European missionaries and native Kenyan Christians played their part by visiting camps to evangelise and encourage compliance with the colonial authorities, providing intelligence, and sometimes even assisting in interrogation. By early 1954, tens of thousands of head of livestock had been taken, and were allegedly never returned. , Baring knew the massive deportations to the already-overcrowded reserves could only make things worse. 1) Nationalism in India was purely based on non – violence efforts and principles of Mahatma Gandhi who advocated mass movements through non – cooperation, civil disobedience, boycott, hartals, etc. From the health point of view, I regard villagisation as being exceedingly dangerous and we are already starting to reap the benefits. The number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which is being disclosed in Prison and Detention Camps is causing some embarrassment. David Anderson estimates 25,000 people died; British demographer John Blacker's estimate is 50,000 deaths—half of them children aged ten or below. We must have no hatred towards one another. It was systematic", Anderson said.  Three battalions of the King's African Rifles were recalled from Uganda, Tanganyika and Mauritius, giving the regiment five battalions in all in Kenya, a total of 3,000 native Kenyan troops. They must be outlawed as well in the minds of all the people of Kenya.  Detainees were screened and re-screened for confessions and intelligence, then re-classified accordingly. , —Speech by Deputy Colonial Governor30 November 1946. , The day after the round up, another prominent loyalist chief, Nderi, was hacked to pieces, and a series of gruesome murders against settlers were committed throughout the months that followed. Allegations about beatings and violence were widespread. In the cities the colonial authorities decided to dispel tensions by raising urban wages, thereby strengthening the hand of moderate union organisations like the KFRTU. This more remote camp near Garissa, eastern Kenya, was reserved for the most uncooperative of the detainees. Yet only one of the claimants is of that stamp—Mr Nzili. The thousands who have spent a long time in detention must have been embittered by it.  A flight of DH Vampire jets flew in from Aden, but were only used for ten days of operations. "Even the attack upon Lari, in the view of the rebel commanders was strategic and specific.  At the same time, there was a small, but growing, class of Kikuyu landowners who consolidated Kikuyu landholdings and forged ties with the colonial administration, leading to an economic rift within the Kikuyu. The first attempt to form a countrywide political party began on 1 October 1944. Kenya is in for a very tricky political future. , There continues to be vigorous debate within Kenyan society and among the academic community within and without Kenya regarding the nature of Mau Mau and its aims, as well as the response to and effects of the uprising. When attacks did commence they were fast and brutal, as insurgents were easily able to identify loyalists because they were often local to those communities themselves. ", Thirteen boxes of "top secret" Kenya files are still missing. All Rights Reserved. , If military operations in the forests and Operation Anvil were the first two phases of Mau Mau's defeat, Erskine expressed the need and his desire for a third and final phase: cut off all the militants' support in the reserves. C "Squatter or resident labourers are those who reside with their families on European farms usually for the purpose of work for the owners. Probably the worst works camp to have been sent to was the one run out of Embakasi Prison, for Embakasi was responsible for the Embakasi Airport, the construction of which was demanded to be finished before the Emergency came to an end. .  The government termed them "protected villages", purportedly to be built along "the same lines as the villages in the North of England", though the term was actually a "euphemism for the fact that hundreds of thousands of civilians were corralled, often against their will, into settlements behind barbed-wire fences and watch towers. 12 July 2000. ANTI-COLONIAL MOVEMENT: ASIA AND AFRICA. These leaders and several Mau Mau fighters were killed. Once I went personally to drop off one gang member who needed special treatment. . , Once the ban was removed, former Mau Mau members who had been castrated or otherwise tortured were supported by the Kenya Human Rights Commission, in particular by the commission's George Morara, in their attempt to take on the British government; their lawyers had amassed 6,000 depositions regarding human rights abuses by late 2002.  Though there were degrees of difference between the villages, the overall conditions engendered by villagisation meant that, by early 1955, districts began reporting starvation and malnutrition. Refusing to give more land to the Kikuyu in the reserves, which could have been seen as a concession to Mau Mau, Baring turned instead in 1953 to Roger Swynnerton, Kenya's assistant director of agriculture. " The villagisation programme was the coup de grâce for Mau Mau. The Mau Mau Uprising between 1952 and 1956 was the first serious fight against oppression. , —A contemporary BBC-description of screening, While oathing, for practical reasons, within the Pipeline was reduced to an absolute minimum, as many new initiates as possible were oathed. The Overseas Branch of the British Red Cross commented on the "women who, from progressive undernourishment, had been unable to carry on with their work". 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