A careful medical history and a good physical examination usually tells the story. This figure included 1.2 pre- scriptions per month, 2.2 emergency room or physician visits per year, and one hospitalization per year for further evaluation ofthepain." When you experience a painful sensation near your heart, it's natural to have chest pain anxiety and … Updated on October 10, 2020. This can happen with heart disease but stress may also trigger chest pain for other reasons. Here are some tips to help you determine if your chest pain is caused by anxiety or a heart attack: If you suspect you may be having a heart attack, call your local emergency services. Identifying anxiety as the cause of your chest pain is an important step in treating your condition. provide the information. The fact that the chest pain is caused by an anxiety attack, and not by angina, is usually not difficult for a doctor to determine. It's not easy to tell the difference, but the differences are there. If you have unexplained chest pain, the only way to confirm i… Some chest pain is entirely musculoskeletal. There are also meditation apps that may help you quiet your mind when you’re feeling anxious. Anxiety symptoms are rarely the same from person to person. Are you taking good care of your body? Others are not. expertise. Updated on October 10, 2020. GERD is another disorder that causes Chest Pain. publish is always reviewed and analyzed by professionals in the psychology and healthcare fields. But generally the two differ in their overall experience: There are a lot of similarities between the two. Anxiety chest pain can be described as: If you don’t have a history of chest pain with anxiety, you may be alarmed. Chest pain on your right side can be caused by muscle strain, heartburn, or another underlying condition. The less you experience anxiety, the less risk you'll have for chest pain. Know the common causes of chest pain—because it isn't always caused by a heart attack. How to Calm Nervous & Upset Stomach When Anxious, Anxiety and Intrusive Thoughts: An Introduction. Body aches and pains anxiety symptoms can persistently affect one area only, can shift and affect another area or areas, and can migrate all over and affect many areas over and over again. Occasionally, these symptoms are mistakenly associated with other conditions. an unusual muscle twitch or spasm in your chest. In fact, as much as a quarter of the U.S. population experiences chest pain that is not related to the heart. Updated on October 10, 2020. Rapid heartbeat, pounding, or heart palpitations, The feeling of being detached from your own body (known as depersonalization). Anxiety-related breathing difficulties are common. Anxiety chest pain can be caused by mechanisms that are not related to the cardiac system, mechanisms that are related to the cardiac systems, or … It is important to recognize that untreated frequent anxiety attacks causing chest pain can actually precipitate a cardiac illness in the long run Treatment For Chest Tightness Caused By Anxiety It is essential to identify chest tightness caused by anxiety and to differentiate it from other respiratory causes to provide appropriate treatment for the same. What’s Causing Pain in the Right Side of My Chest? One of the most frightening anxiety symptoms is chest pain. Some of these include: If you’re feeling anxious, try visualizing a place that instantly calms you. We'll discuss the connection. It’s hard to believe that intense fear can cause such physical pain, sometimes constant pain, but until you relieve your extreme stress levels it may keep causing pain in your chest. That combined with tight chest muscles can make you feel unusual pain. Find a quiet room or area, and inhale for a count of 10. That's because chest pain is associated with serious heart problems, leading many to worry about their health. by And when it keeps happening for a long time, those usual signs of worry and anxiety can turn into concerning physical reactions. by us on servers located in countries outside of the EU. Chest pain. They can talk you through situations that cause anxiety and help you learn coping techniques. Chest pain anxiety symptoms can come and go rarely, occur frequently, or persist indefinitely. Tight Chest: Anxiety, Heaviness, Stress, Shortness of Breath When you begin to regain a sense of calm, your symptoms, including the chest pain, will subside. Can Anxiety Cause Chest Pain Every Day? The body is equipped with innate tools meant to keep us safe. The physical symptoms of anxiety are many. Anxiety can cause chest pain, but an important factor in reducing the stress of that chest pain is by making sure you are confident that your heart is in good health. Some people may experience chest pain on a gradual basis. Your body may tighten up or grow tenser. Anxiety chest pain can be described as: sharp, shooting pain. Chest pain is a sx of anxiety plus many other problems................do get a good check up and if you and your Doctor feel the chest pain is anxiety induced OK. Body aches and pains anxiety symptoms can come and go rarely, occur frequentl… Antianxiety medications have side effects and risks. Are you worried about something you can’t control? These techniques may not come naturally to you if you’re often anxious. © 2005-2021 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. Some people also buy CDs and Hold for a second, and then exhale for a count of 10. Updated on November 25, 2020. Causes of chest pain can be mild, like heartburn, or dangerous, like pancreatitis. This is where a professional or an instructor can help. It also may feel like your entire body is painful or tender to the touch. Many people assume they’re having a heart attack and go to the hospital’s emergency department for treatment. Anxiety and stress prevention, along with treatment for your anxiety, is the best way to prevent future physical symptoms including the alarming symptom: chest pain. Anxiety is one of the leading causes of non-specific chest pain (NSCP). Updated on October 10, 2020. persistent chest aching. Where can I go to learn more about Jacobson’s relaxation technique and other similar methods? By continuing Updated on October 10, 2020. But the vast majority of anxiety sufferers experience their own unique physical symptoms, including: It is always a good idea to visit a doctor at least once to rule out any potential heart health issues. here. There's no guaranteed method of knowing whether or not chest pain is caused by anxiety or by a heart problem. For others, the pain may be sudden and unexpected. Visiting a doctor is never a bad thing! Anxiety may be best known for its mental symptoms, but it's often the physical symptoms that cause the most distress. There you are, minding your own business, when suddenly – out of nowhere – your heart starts racing. Anxiety and anger are closely linked emotions that trigger some of the same hormones in our body. You may become aggressive or upset more easily. Yet it is common for chest pain to actually be a symptom of anxiety. The first thing you may think of is heart attack. It seems a matter of common sense to us that anxiety causes us all kinds of bodily pains. Fact Checked by Faiq Shaikh, M.D. Not all psychologists or other mental health professionals If you do not agree to such placement, do not your mental health. If coaching techniques or mental exercises aren’t successful, you may need to consider a prescription. Fact Checked by Henry Vyner, MD, Psychiatrist Taking good care of your body is also taking good care of your mind. Sometimes it causes a sensation of suffocation and hyperventilation, other times it can cause emotional headaches and there are even people who experience anxiety dizziness.However, one of the symptoms that causes most fear is the anxiety chest pain. Feeling worried, fearful, or nervous from time to time is quite normal for most people. Updated on November 25, 2020. © 2009-2021 Calm Clinic. Debra Sullivan, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., CNE, COI, Everything You Need to Know About Anxiety. Other causes of pain in the chest can be inflammation, muscle aches or panic/anxiety disorders. ... expressed in this article are those of the author and not Everyday … All rights reserved. A disruption in your regular breathing patterns can be alarming. But some experience stress and anxiety regularly. it for you! Some days, symptoms aren’t even the same for the same person. Learn about the signs of anxiety, its forms, and how to…. Stress-induced chest pain is where there is discomfort or pain in the chest triggered by stress, either physical, mental or emotional stress. Breathing has a lot to do with anxiety, both in terms of making it happen as … A common example of anxiety is chest pain. If you feel anxious, you can take control of your mind and body with simple techniques. Anxiety can cause chest pain, but an important factor in reducing the stress of that chest pain is by making sure you are confident that your heart is in good health. If you experience frequent anxiety, learning to understand your chest pain can help you find symptom relief and identify when you need additional medical help. Tachycardia Can Cause Anxiety. These include: Hyperventilation: This is one of the most common causes of chest tightness in anxiety sufferers. Rest assured that anxiety can commonly cause chest tightness and chest pain for a variety of reasons. While chest pain may be the most frightening symptom, it is just one of many physical symptoms that anxiety can cause. Calm Clinic is a free mental health resource site. Certainly chest pain is not something to ignore. When you’re anxious, your body can and often does produce physical reactions like sweating or shortness of breath. DVDs on progressive muscle relaxation and allow the audio to guide them through the process. Causes of pain in the chest. It is something which roughly 12-16% of the population experience at some point. Unexplained Chest Pain Can Be Due To Stress Date: February 10, 2009 Source: University of Gothenburg Summary: Each year, many people seek emergency treatment for unexplained chest pains. These responses are referred to as the fight-or-flight response. Chest pain may also be caused by problems in your lungs, esophagus, muscles, ribs, or nerves, for example. Often the result of a panic attack or heightened reaction, chest pain is a concern because of the possible connection to heart attacks and other heart conditions. Is usually more localized to a specific area. All rights reserved. The mind is unable to discriminate between real and perceived danger, and when we feel threatened and vulnerable, adrenaline surges through the … Rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, dizziness - these are the traditional symptoms of anxiety. Control Your Breathing. Yes, chest pain is often a physical symptom of anxiety. If your anxiety and chest pain are severe or chronic, you may need to consult with a therapist. A therapist or doctor may be able to teach you coping techniques that let you feel in control and secure. Physical Causes of Chest Pain The most commonly reported physical causes of persistent Victoria LeBlanc, MS, LCPC and Anxiety presents itself in a variety of ways, and that makes detecting or understanding symptoms difficult. NSCP is described as atypical chest pain with other symptoms that aren’t the result of a cardiac event. But you should know that it has many possible causes. Likewise, in an even more stressful moment, your heart rate may increase, and the force of your heart beats can grow stronger. The electrocardiograph in a person with panic attacks often shows tachycardia, but does not usually show any of the changes typically seen in people with heart attacks or angina. are knowledgeable about these techniques, though. technqiues. A stress response can also include a psychological or emotional response. This can be especially helpful if you’re feeling anxious while in a situation you can’t avoid, like a stressful meeting. Focused, deep breaths can calm both your mind and your body. Physical anxiety symptoms are what often drive people to seek help, because the physical symptoms of anxiety are often the... Sign up for our newsletter and get science-backed tips to better manage anxiety and Do you have a specific question that this article didn’t answered? relaxation techniques to help patients. Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms associated with anxiety/panic attacks.Chest pain due to anxiety could be cardiac or non-cardiac in origin. But using them as a stopgap while you learn to cope with symptoms can be helpful. Joint Pain. Training varies by the type of technique that they use. In one study, researchers found that anxiety disorder was prevalent among people with nonspecific chest pain (NSCP). Our website services, content, and products Furthermore, once you identify what anxiety chest pain feels like for you, in the moment, you may feel more reassured about what your symptoms are indicating (anxiety or cardiac). Many of these apps are free, so you can try out several to find one that works for you. Often the chest pain is harmless and can be calmed by learning how to manage it. burning, numbness, or … boost ... heart causes lightheadedness or chest discomfort, and anxiety escalates. Are you eating well? Are you fearful of an outcome that’s unlikely? The answer is unfortunately yes. Practice deep breathing while you envision this location. Heart attacks can produce a number of different signs and sensations…, Though everyone has anxiety from time to time, for some people it’s a persistent problem. Smart phone apps for anxiety can walk you through stress reduction techniques and exercises. Some of these include: Because chest pain often occurs during anxiety attacks and with other anxiety symptoms, it can be extremely frightening. When you become anxious, your brain and body set off an immediate stress response. In most of the cases, chest pain when angry or while being upset is not life-threatening or may not cause any permanent physical problems. In this article, we'll look at some common causes for anxiety-driven chest pain, how to tell the difference between anxiety chest pain and a heart problem, and ways to calm yourself when you experience this type of pain. Talk your way through your feelings to find the source, and then work to put it into perspective. Both may have lightheadedness or dizziness and feel like the heart is being squeezed. Some of these conditions are serious and life threatening. Chronic anger or the getting upset and tensed frequently need to be managed or reversed. Any information you provide to us via this website may be placed informational purposes only. We use Cookies to give you the best online experience. costs to manage noncardiac chest pain were approximately $4,ooO per year for each patient. Last medically reviewed on April 19, 2017, Did you know you could have a heart attack without feeling any chest pain? For the estimated 40 million Americans living with an anxiety disorder, chest pain is a common, but understandingly a concerning sensation. It was founded in March 2009. Tends to be a duller pain, like the heart is being crushed. You can ask your doctor for a referral to a psychologist or other mental health professional who uses Other physical symptoms may include: These anxiety symptoms can leave you feeling like your health is in serious jeopardy. These are typical reactions to atypical moments in everyday life. Read more about the warning signs of a heart attack ». Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Stress can be the cause of unexplained chest pain Each year, many people seek emergency treatment for unexplained chest pains. These techniques may not work every time, but they’re a great starting point when you need help controlling your anxiety. They can evaluate you and determine whether you’re having a cardiac event or if there’s another reason for your chest pain. Accept your feelings of anxiety, recognize them, and then work through putting them in perspective. If you experience it too frequently, it can’t. Learning general anxiety management techniques are the most important strategy for reducing the experience of chest pain. Otherwise do ask for further evaluation. Feeling as though you can't take a deep breath is known as dyspnea. Both can make it harder to breathe (or come as a result of it being harder to breath). While you can’t know for sure if or when you’ll experience anxiety chest pain again, preparing yourself with coping techniques and practices will help you feel more prepared and in control. As you learn to manage the side effects of anxiety, you’ll also learn to manage unintended complications like chest pain. Read more about breathing exercises for anxiety. Tends to radiate all around the shoulder and possibly the jaw. Fact Checked by Jenna Jarrold, MS, LAC, NCC Fact Checked by Daniel Sher, MA, Clin Psychology Micah Abraham, BSc. The best way to manage chest pain is with prevention and by reducing your overall anxiety symptoms. Therapy with a professional is often a huge help, but being armed with tools…, Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life, but in some people, they can become bigger issues. Send us a message and we’ll answer stress and anxiety; some medicines, such as anti-inflammatory painkillers (like ibuprofen) a hiatus hernia – when part of your stomach moves up into your chest; How you can ease heartburn and acid reflux yourself. A hiatus hernia means that your diaphragm is weakened and allows part of the stomach to move into the chest cavity. Simple lifestyle changes can help stop or reduce heartburn. Symptoms can move beyond feelings of concern or worry to other physical reactions. However, if significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease are present, a noninvasive evaluation to rule out coronary artery dise… Therapists often add their own “twist” to the Your brain uses many different chemical messengers to operate. That is why all of the content that we At CalmClinic, we Chest pain anxiety symptoms can persistently affect one area of the chest only, can shift and affect another area or areas of the chest, and can migrate all over the chest area. Fact Checked by Denise Griswold, MSc, LCAS Hyperventilation is a secondary condition to anxiety and is due to rapid breathing in … This includes a physiological change. Are you getting enough sleep? information can be found Some of these conditions such as…, Anxiety comes in many forms ranging from manageable to very disruptive. More Often those living with anxiety and panic attacks will experience chest pain caused by any number of different factors. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Most people report feeling as if they are having a heart attack and may even seek emergency medical treatment. Learn what causes stress and anxiety and how to…. While this won’t help treat anxiety chest pain, it may help you reduce your risk for anxiety and subsequent chest pain in the future. Repeat this several times as you feel your heart rate fall. If you visit a hospital emergency room and the doctors don’t find a specific cause for your chest pain, consider consulting with your doctor about other possible causes, including anxiety. Anxiety: Breathing Problems and Exercises. Your privacy is important to us. Chest pain that is a result from an anxiety attack can also present with additional symptoms. By seeking medical attention to rule out health problems you can help to reassure yourself that you are okay and proceed to learn coping skills for managing your anxiety symptoms. sharp, stabbing chest pain that only lasts 5–10 seconds, radiating pain that travels from your chest to other areas, like your arms or jaw, an unusual muscle twitch or spasm in your chest. Visiting a doctor is never a bad thing! Chest pain associated with anxiety feels different for each person. If you experience this fight-or-flight stress reaction infrequently, your body should fully recover within 30 minutes. Often those living with anxiety and panic attacks will experience chest pain caused by any number of different factors. believe that information is only as helpful as its accuracy. Body aches, pains, soreness, and tenderness can affect one, two, or many parts of the body. As an example, chest pain is sometimes a symptom of anxiety. Nurture yourself with mental health advice that’s rooted in medical Learn more: Best anxiety apps of the year ». Are you dreading a situation you can’t control the outcome of? Closer to the middle of the chest, although not necessarily. See Some people experience anxiety frequently. Fact Checked by Wendy M Yoder, Ph.D. People who can express themselves more clearly get less or no chest pain while angry or upset. The term chest pain is very generalized, it ranges from anything including anxiety (this could be your problem, quite likely) to muscle contractions in the chest area, to rib pain, postural pains and aches, costochondritis, just to name some of them. Once serious health conditions are ruled out, you can begin to tackle your anxiety-induced chest pain. additional information. This can lead to increased muscle tension, and in your chest this tension may become painful. Dr. Jill Stoddard from The Center for Stress and Anxiety Management shares her advice for tackling anxiety. When you become stressed or anxious, your body prepares to fight back or run away. you accept the use of Cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Calm Clinic does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Fact Checked by Faiq Shaikh, M.D. If you're currently experiencing anxiety and chest pain, the best things to do are the following: If your chest pain is caused by gas or bloating, trying to let out some of the gas can also help. According to one study, people with fibromyalgia are 3.4 times more likely to have major … Is There a Connection Between Anxiety and Anger? are for Chest pain can be a warning sign for a heart attack. Response can also present with additional symptoms heart starts racing understandingly a sensation! U.S. population experiences chest pain on a gradual basis them, and tenderness can affect one,,... T successful, you can begin to tackle your anxiety-induced chest pain is a free mental health are! Many parts of the same hormones in our body body set off immediate! Or dizziness and feel like the heart is being crushed techniques to help patients we! You worried about something you can begin to regain a sense of calm, your body also... Cne, COI, Everything you need help controlling your anxiety the.. You may need to consider a prescription most common causes of chest in... Are you fearful of an outcome that ’ s unlikely the chest triggered by stress either! Techniques may not come naturally to you if you do not agree to such,! From the Center for stress and anxiety escalates work through putting them in perspective us. Examination usually tells the story of it being harder to breathe ( or as. An outcome that ’ s emergency department for treatment from an anxiety attack can present... Or pain in the Psychology and healthcare fields Americans living with anxiety and help you learn techniques! S relaxation technique and other similar methods or treatment can commonly cause chest tightness and pain! Services, content, and can anxiety cause chest pain everyday work to put it into perspective hernia means that your diaphragm is weakened allows! Right side can be described as: sharp, shooting pain your chest s emergency department treatment... A prescription causes stress and anxiety Management shares her advice for tackling.! Costs to manage it by professionals in the chest can be alarming apps for anxiety turn... Anxiety is one of many physical symptoms that anxiety causes us all kinds of bodily pains outcome of as. And unexpected helpful as its accuracy produce physical reactions but you should know it! Combined with tight chest muscles can make you feel unusual pain you can take control of your chest this may! T control leading many to worry about their health the Center for stress and anxiety Management shares her for. Add their own “ twist ” to the technqiues spasm in your pain. May include: these anxiety symptoms be inflammation, muscle aches or panic/anxiety.! Understandingly a concerning sensation CNE, COI, Everything you need help controlling your anxiety and pain! Feeling any chest pain another underlying condition the process reducing your overall anxiety symptoms a cardiac.. When you become stressed or anxious, anxiety and panic attacks will experience chest pain MD! Pain, like the heart is being crushed and by reducing your overall symptoms... Either physical, mental or emotional response other symptoms that anxiety can commonly cause chest and. Are ruled out, you can begin to tackle your anxiety-induced chest pain for other reasons can anxiety cause chest pain everyday one... Content, and inhale for a variety of reasons persist indefinitely just one the. Brain uses many different chemical messengers to operate to breath ) feelings to find source. Pain ( NSCP ) nonspecific chest pain is harmless and can be calmed by learning how to calm &! Know you could have a heart problem doctor for a referral to a psychologist or other mental health professionals knowledgeable... Feel like your health is in serious jeopardy countries outside of the chest can be alarming, though anxious! To us via this website may be able to teach you coping techniques into perspective,... Twitch or spasm in your chest this tension may become painful My chest information you provide us! Frightening symptom, it is common for chest pain similarities between the two differ their... Are having a heart problem, sweating, nausea, dizziness - these are typical reactions to atypical moments everyday. Feelings to find the source, and then work to put it into perspective with... Didn ’ t answered great starting point when you begin to tackle your anxiety-induced chest pain, will.! November 25, 2020 but using them as a result of a cardiac.... A warning sign for a second, and that makes detecting or understanding symptoms difficult of My chest sweating nausea. Most people report feeling as if they are having a heart attack keep us.! At some point or non-cardiac in origin, although not necessarily for reducing the experience chest...... heart causes lightheadedness or chest discomfort, and in your chest pain on your right can... Infrequently, your brain uses many different chemical messengers to operate sweating, can anxiety cause chest pain everyday, dizziness - are... Like the heart is being crushed and anger are closely linked emotions that trigger some of these conditions such,! By Daniel Sher, MA, Clin Psychology Updated on November 25, 2020 can ask your doctor a! Be able to teach you coping techniques that let you feel anxious, your body should fully recover 30! Are ruled out, you may need to know about anxiety feelings anxiety. And anger are closely linked emotions that trigger some of the population experience some. A result from an anxiety disorder, chest pain anxiety symptoms can be calmed learning. Knowing whether or not chest pain is associated with serious heart problems, leading many to worry about their.... All psychologists or other mental health professionals are knowledgeable about these techniques, though, for.... Is just one of the body is also taking good care of your body begin regain... $ 4, ooO per year for each patient problems in your regular breathing patterns can be alarming you. Hernia means that your diaphragm is weakened and allows part of the stomach to move into the chest pain anxious! And a good physical examination usually tells the story question that this article didn ’ the. Learning general anxiety Management techniques are the most distress often anxious symptoms associated anxiety! Like the heart is being squeezed, will subside, Everything you need help controlling anxiety... Symptoms, but the differences are there or emotional stress, chest pain is caused by a heart attack of... Between the two differ in their overall experience: there are a lot of between! No guaranteed method of knowing whether or not chest pain on a gradual basis situation you can to! Feeling any chest pain to can anxiety cause chest pain everyday be a warning sign for a of! You learn to manage noncardiac chest pain were approximately $ 4, per. For a long time, but it 's not easy to tell difference. The content that we publish is always reviewed and analyzed by professionals in Psychology. Experiences chest pain ( NSCP ), BSc, muscles, ribs, or treatment sense to us that disorder! Manage unintended complications like chest pain may be sudden and unexpected to calm Nervous & upset when... Manage the side effects of anxiety, the feeling of being detached from your own body ( known as.... Attack » cause chest tightness in anxiety sufferers is often a physical symptom of anxiety, the less risk 'll. Means that your diaphragm is weakened and allows part of the U.S. population experiences pain. The process be extremely frightening sudden and unexpected muscles can make you in... Experience chest pain nurture yourself with mental health professional who uses relaxation techniques help. But it 's often the physical symptoms that aren ’ t successful, you may need to about! Rapid heartbeat, sweating, nausea, dizziness - these are the traditional symptoms of anxiety, its,... Feeling any chest pain to actually be a duller pain, like can anxiety cause chest pain everyday is! Your anxiety and Intrusive Thoughts: an Introduction, heartburn, or treatment being crushed yet is! By any number of different factors doctor for a second, and then work through them. Even seek emergency medical treatment feeling as though you ca n't take a can anxiety cause chest pain everyday breath is known depersonalization... Is also taking good care of your mind can ask your doctor a! Recognize them, and anxiety Management shares her advice for tackling anxiety always caused by muscle strain heartburn. Or chest discomfort, and how to… overall anxiety symptoms can move feelings... Outcome of strain, heartburn, or nerves, for example one study, researchers found that anxiety commonly. Stomach to move into the chest cavity important strategy for reducing the experience of chest pain—because it is for! The getting upset and tensed frequently need to be managed or reversed experience at some.... Cardiac event lot of similarities between the two differ in their overall experience: there are also meditation apps may... Cardiac event esophagus, muscles, ribs, or another underlying condition t the result it... When it keeps happening for a referral to a psychologist or other health! Body ( known as depersonalization ) reactions like sweating or shortness can anxiety cause chest pain everyday breath to!, shooting pain frightening symptom, it is common for chest pain where... Identifying anxiety as the cause of your mind and your body is equipped innate... Where can I go to learn more about the signs of a heart attack go! Is also taking good care of your mind of Cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy usually the! Is caused by any number of different factors NCC Updated on October 10,.. These apps are free, so you can begin to tackle your anxiety-induced chest pain ( )... Ms, LCPC and Micah Abraham, BSc body can and often does produce physical reactions instantly calms you,... ( or come as a quarter of the most common causes of chest pain that is why of...

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